Diwan Sawan Mal’s Administrative System in Multan Province 1821-1844


  • Aftab Hussain Gilani The Islamia University of Bahawalpur
  • Ahmad Ali The Islamia University of Bahawalpur
  • Samia Khalid The Islamia University of Bahawalpur
  • Muhammad Afzal The Islamia University of Bahawalpur


Ranjit Sing, Sawan Mal, Land Revenue Administration, Agrarian and irrigation system, , Kardar, and Chahat


Under the Sikh period, several reforms were introduced in Multan to collect revenue for the Sikh State and Military. They improved land revenue, built many wells and perpetual canals under the governorship of Sawan Mal and his son Mulraj. This study focuses on Land Revenue, irrigation, and agrarian system that was prevailing in Multan during the period of Sawan Mal (1821-44). The reason behind the selection of this era and area is that the revenue system adopted by him has unique significance because he not only provided the right direction for future policies but also gave peace and calm to the native people. At that time, Multan was an important unit of Punjab where policies were formulated at a higher level and translated into action throughout Punjab. It has been tried to break new ground, challenging the viewpoint of previous writers about the local history in the first half of the nineteenth century.