PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY <p>The first Women University in Multan welcomes you to come forward in participation of our peer reviewed journal in different disciplines. The Journal provides a plate form for the publication of post advance research. It promotes a vibrant research culture. It is dedicated to explore new areas of history and to develop its capacity in all fields of History &amp; Pakistan Studies. The faculty and students are actively engaged in research activities. This journal welcomes original, empirical investigations. The paper may represent a variety of theoretical perspectives and different methodological approaches. History is a subject that aims at enhancing patriotism in the hearts of researchers. Within the research program, social studies provides coordinated, systematic study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion and sociology as well as appropriate content from the humanities to promote civic competence. The journal standards for social studies provide a framework for professional deliberation and planning about what is going on in our society. The major criteria in the review and selection process concern the significance of the contribution to the area of learning and instruction.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong><br />Vice Chancellor<br />The Women University, Multan.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF</strong></p> <p><strong>Dr. Fatima Ali</strong><br />Department of History &amp; Pakistan Studies<br />The Women University, Multan.</p> The Women University Multan en-US PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY 2707-6709 An Introduction to the Problematic of Security: Theory- Building in International Relations <p><em>The paper discusses the problematic of security studies in relation to theory building in international relations.It aims to highlight apertures in the dominant explanations of security studies, and further provides an indication about mending these lacunas. To this end, dominant theories of international relations: Realism, Liberalism, and their progenies have been critically analyzed, and their problematics have been discussed in detail. Through critical analysis of dominant explanations in international relations theory, this paper helps to identify the gaps in the conceptual, methodological, and practical domains of security studies.</em></p> Asma akbar Khawaja Alqama Copyright (c) 2020 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 113 131 Mentoring As Component of Continuous Professional Development Program: A Case Study of Multan District <p><em>Becoming a primary school teacher is a challenging assignment thatrequired skills and knowledge that are necessary to impact student performance. One tactic used to support primary school teachers is to assign experienced members of their profession astheir mentors.</em><em> Mentor playsa significantrole inimproving teachers'professional developmentin their teaching profession.Intend outcomes of this paper wereto investigate the effectiveness of the procedures for the mentoring which are directed and organized by the regional teacher educatorsand to see its influence on the performance and dutiesof Teachers of primary school levels (PSTs) in Punjab.The extensive research study was descriptive.This study adopted the quantitative research method and utilized two research toolsquestionnaire and mentoring visit form.Outcomes of the studyexposed that the majority of the participants have a positive approach towardsan existingmentoring program. This study also provides evidence thatdue to the mentoring activities professional development of participants is enhanced. Major suggestions for the study were that mentorsshould be well trained and change their perspective towards contestants.</em></p> Amna saleem Copyright (c) 2020 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 133 146 Diwan Sawan Mal’s Administrative System in Multan Province 1821-1844 <p><em>Under the Sikh period, several reforms were introduced in Multan to collect revenue for the Sikh State and Military. They improved land revenue, built many wells and perpetual canals under the governorship of Sawan Mal and his son Mulraj. This study focuses on Land Revenue, irrigation, and agrarian system that was prevailing in Multan during the period of Sawan Mal (1821-44). The reason behind the selection of this era and area is that the revenue system adopted by him has unique significance because he not only provided the right direction for future policies but also gave peace and calm to the native people. At that time, Multan was an important unit of Punjab where policies were formulated at a higher level and translated into action throughout Punjab. It has been tried to break new ground, challenging the viewpoint of previous writers about the local history in the first half of the nineteenth century.</em></p> Aftab Hussain Gilani Ahmad Ali Samia Khalid Muhammad Afzal Copyright (c) 2020 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 147 159 The Architecture and Decoration Varieties of Khirbat al Mafjar <p><em>T</em><em>he 8<sup>th</sup> century desert palace Khirbat al Mafjar remains (in present day Jordan) is a matchless specimen of Umayyad luxurious lifestyle and their perception for art. The palace is amalgamation of variety of decoration type like carved and moulded stucco, stone relief and birds and figure sculpture and also frescos paintings. &nbsp;It is famous for its well-preserved floor mosaics. &nbsp;</em><em>Although credited to caliph Hisham (r. AD 724– 743) but his successor and also his nephew named as&nbsp; Al Walid&nbsp;&nbsp; II probably built this palace (r. AD 743– 44) . However after five years Al-Walid’s died and, the palace was smashed due to an earthquake. This article discusses the building designed structure and the ornamentation and decoration varieties used in the architecture. Though this palace is famous for its mosaics but this paper covers its main parts of architecture and all types of varieties. It’s an explorative study collected from historical data, literature and excavation reports and in the end it concludes that this palace is unique not only for its varieties but also the symbolic meanings of elements in the decoration. These symbols have some logic or reason of representing in the palace that explains the power and authority of the owner. In other words not just depiction of luxurious lifestyle but the aesthetics and symbolic both designs are the parts of this Umayyad era building.</em></p> Sonia Nasir Khan Iqra Ashraf Copyright (c) 2020 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 161 180 A A Descriptive Analysis of Barriers Faced By Females in Acquiring Higher Education; A Study of District Zhob, Baluchistan in Pakistan <p><em>The current research was centered on the scholarly issues and social barriers faced by female students to get affirmation in higher education. The study expected to discover the difficulties, which the respondents needed to face to conquer the social impediments in getting advanced education. The review concentrated on huge number of social obstructions and difficulties, budgetary issues and scholastic issues that female needed to confront. Quantitative research approach was utilized to uncover the experience of respondents which they encountered while getting affirmation in college. The research was being conducted in District Zhob, Baluchistan Province, since it was encompassed by for the most part country Areas. Population of the present review comprised of the female understudies contemplating in different instructive organizations. The discoveries demonstrate that different variables in charge of social prohibition of young ladies from education area in Pakistan incorporate preservationist state of mind of family and inclination to kid's training. Notwithstanding this, female understudies likewise tended to face impression of their families about co-education as social and religious variables to advanced education in Pakistan. The focus acknowledged with this class was "saw fears and dangers to family respect". As the individuals from conservative society, families had for the most part negative demeanor for females towards advanced education.</em></p> Hina Aslam (CA) Saima Muneer Aisha Khan Aamna Mushtaq Copyright (c) 2020 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 181 192 A Sociological Study of Transgression of Basic Guarded Rights of Transgenders & Hurdles In Finding Their Gender Identity In Socio-Cultural Context ( A case study of segregated localities of Multan) <p><em>This article deals with the study of the problems faced by transgenders, in regards of their guarded rights being transgressed,both from the familial and socio-cultural context. This study is amid, to explore socio-cultural behavior of individuals who surround a trans either from his/her family or society. Questions have already emerged about sociological problems and cultural adjustment as a human being and its related casual factor related to a transgender. It is one of the emerging issues of our society that directly influences the identity of those people who are facing gender disapproval from their surroundings. This research work tried to discover the factors that influence the discrimination faced generally and particularly by trans. The article reveals the social and cultural norms that stigmatize socio-cultural exclusion of trans human beings from the society and how continuous banishment from society makes their life more tough after being rejected from their home/family. The present study analyzed the continuous deprivation of trans people rights from family to community having no secure rights of education, health and professional life conducting interviews from a group of trans residing in segregated areas of Multan, Pakistan. The findings also revealed the consequences of banishment, throws their life away from mainstream of a life a normal human being must have.&nbsp; The data in this paper has been collected by using qualitative research technique with participant observation and in-depth interviews.</em></p> Hina Aslam Saima Munir Copyright (c) 2020 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 193 206 Political and Administrative Secularization of the Ottoman Empire <p><em>The Ottoman empire was established in the last decades of the 13th century by the efforts of a Turkish Osman-I and continued till early 20<sup>th</sup> century. His father Ertugral Ghazi migrated from Mangolia towards Middle Eastern regions and worked as employ of the Saljuks. The Saljuks built a powerful Muslim empire in Central and Southwest Asia decades before, after the defeat of the Byzantine Empire. However, after its decline Ottoman Turks established the Empire, which was a typical combination of Western and Eastern multi-cultural societies and their traditions. According to the historians and many writers, it was an Islamic state, but in fact, it based on the secularism and non-Islamic traditions. The Ottomans used religion-Islam to make integrity in the conquered areas of the Islamic world and the western regions, because they felt that the religion could play a vital role in the establishment of strong empire. In the early sixteenth century, the Ottoman ruler got the title of caliph and became the custodians of Hermain-ul-Sharefain because the caliph ideally played a role as a spiritual and political leader of the Muslim world. So, it remained under the influence of Islamism, but after many decades the secularization of the empire reemerged and it transformed into a secular/modern empire. The proposed paper focuses on the emerging elements of the secularism in the empire after its establishment. The research study is based on the theoretical and analytical approaches of research to investigate that it was substantially a religious state or used religion Islam as the instrument to get the stability and favour of the Muslim world.</em></p> Dr. Fatima Ali Dr. Asmat Naz Copyright (c) 2020 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 1 2 207 220