PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY <p>The first Women University in Multan welcomes you to come forward in participation of our peer reviewed journal in different disciplines. The Journal provides a plate form for the publication of post advance research. It promotes a vibrant research culture. It is dedicated to explore new areas of history and to develop its capacity in all fields of History &amp; Pakistan Studies. The faculty and students are actively engaged in research activities. This journal welcomes original, empirical investigations. The paper may represent a variety of theoretical perspectives and different methodological approaches. History is a subject that aims at enhancing patriotism in the hearts of researchers. Within the research program, social studies provides coordinated, systematic study drawing upon such disciplines as anthropology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion and sociology as well as appropriate content from the humanities to promote civic competence. The journal standards for social studies provide a framework for professional deliberation and planning about what is going on in our society. The major criteria in the review and selection process concern the significance of the contribution to the area of learning and instruction.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong><br />Vice Chancellor<br />The Women University, Multan.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF</strong></p> <p><strong>Dr. Fatima Ali</strong><br />Department of History &amp; Pakistan Studies<br />The Women University, Multan.</p> en-US (Dr. Fatima Ali) (Mr. Asghar Ali) Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Northbrook Clock Tower and Ripon Hall: History and Architecture of Ghanta-Ghar Multan, Pakistan <p><em>Ghanta-Ghar has been considered a marked distinction of British Architecture indicating a symbolic centrality of imperial administration and reflecting the cultural, religious and political acumen of the imperial mind in the town planning of an administrative center. This symbolic erection has been used as means of expressing wealth, power, manifestation of authority and influence of empire. Multan as an important and central point of Southern Punjab came under the British empire in the mid of 19<sup>th</sup> century. The British erected urban and religious establishments to exhibit their power, authority, wealth and control. Multan has been a rich region with a strong legacy of architectural heritage from the oldest hindu times to the time of British’s Muslim predecessors. However, British contributed significantly to that heritage. Northbrook Tower and Ripon Hall (Ghanta-Ghar Multan) is one of the major Imperial administrative establishments in Multan constructed with a blend of the English and Indian (synthesis of Indian and Mughal) architecture between 1884 to 1888 CE. According to Francoise Dasques, the clock tower was built using Anglo Indian, Indo Saracenic and Greeko-Roman patterns.&nbsp; The purpose of this paper is analyze the structure, style and approach of the Ghanta-Ghar establishgment, along with exploring the tradition of clock towers in India by the British and amalgamation of native &amp; European built environment. Hence the paper highlights the elements and features used in architectural scheme of the building and explains the nature of its structure with a contribution-assessment of use and compatibility of native/indigenous and foreign techniques and materials&nbsp; The paper explains the advent of British in Multan and its construction in the area very briefly while it explains the history, construction of Northbrook Clock tower and Ripon Hall, its construction style, structural pattern, and decorative material in detail. The study analyses the elements of the building separately comparing with other colonial and Mughal structures. Drawings, photos of the building and terminologies has been used in the paper to make the study easier and understandable. </em></p> Abdul Basit, Muhammad Shafique Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Exploring Ideologies in Primary English Textbook (SNC-2020): A Critical Discourse Analysis <p><em>This research aims to investigate the various ideologies embedded within the language of the primary English textbooks (SNC-2020) of grades (1-3). It also inquires the supportive role of these ideologies for the children in the process to get an education. This is qualitative research, the data is collected from the primary English textbooks (SNC-2020) of grades (1-3). The latent qualitative content analysis under the theoretical framework of 3D CDA Modal (Fairclough, 2001) reveal the ethical and Pakistani cultural ideologies and themes. The findings show the prominent themes are ethics in home and school, discipline attitude and good manners the children follow in the culture of Pakistan. The sophisticated and positive attitude of the children in the social, home and educational institutions reflects ethical values as the prominent feature of productive positive social being. Moreover, the critical discourse analysis of the qualitative data uncovers the different ethical and Pakistani cultural ideologies. These ideologies reflect the ethical and scheduled attitude of the children because they are shown to help the poor, share things, respect elders, be punctual and honest, keep cleanliness, does homework, save resources, play and study side by side. Consequently, this facilitates the process to get the education and the children get the idea from the textbooks to study at home along with following the ethical activities. The future researcher may explore the linguistic role of these textbooks to teach four skills of language. </em></p> Mamona Yasmin Khan, Abida Ali Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Development of A Model For the in-Service Training of Secondary School Science Teachers <p><em>The present study aimed for developing a model for in-service training for science teachers of secondary schools keeping in view deficiencies and drawbacks found in the existing model. The population consisted of 2191 secondary school science teachers of Southern Punjab and the sample consisted of 724 trainees who were imparted training under Science Education Project (SEP) in the years 2002 and 2003 from four districts </em><em>Multan, Layyah, Khanewal and Lodhran that were selected by random sampling technique</em><em>. The questionnaire was developed that comprised 38 items including one open-ended question regarding suggestions for improving the INSET programme. The items of the questionnaire were developed regarding various indicators like reason of</em><em> participation, </em><em>use of </em><em>teaching method</em><em>, use of A.V. Aids and information regarding the</em><em> commencement </em><em>of INSET. The major findings and conclusion of the study were: (i)</em><em> trainees participated for their professional growth (ii) the lecture method was frequently used and (iii) trainees were </em><em>informed before the commencement of the training course</em><em>. They also suggested that INSET should be conducted by using modern methods of teaching at the local or tehsil level. Relevant subject teachers and highly qualified master trainers should be nominated for INSET.</em> <em>Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied to analyze the data. The proposed Model of INSET for secondary school science teachers was developed on the basis of findings, conclusions and recommendations.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Muhammad Akram Shah, Maryam Hussain, Sabad Gul Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 South Punjab's Economic Development in the Perspective of Women's Empowerment <p><em>In today's era, It is inevitable to think about the fast pace of growth without women's contribution. Studying the connection between women's economic empowerment and economic development is the focus of this article. Women who are self-reliant, respect women, are able to make decisions and have a sense of their own worth are some of the things that are of interest. They also have better health care facilities for women and children, better awareness of their rights, gender equity, women's participation and involvement in job performance. The questionnaire is used for data collection from university faculty and administrative staff of 9 districts of Punjab province. Results of empirical analysis approved all hypotheses revealing that women's empowerment has a significant impact on the development of an economy. Outcomes of this study are beneficial for the Government in designing the policies related to females.</em></p> Faiza Arshad , Shahnawaz Malik Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Punjabi Folklore and The War of Independence 1857-58 <p><em>Oral history is one of the branches of the discipline of history which is based on verbal accounts and verbal traditions of histography. Folklore is an essential element of oral history to build an alternative history. Generally, folklore presents a different point of view form the written history. Folklore presents the wishes and emotions of common people while written history. In many cases fulfill the ruling elite class. So, it can be concluded that to understand role of the people of Punjab during the war of independence. The study of the Punjabi folklore and folk songs is inevitable for it</em></p> Turab-ul-Hassan Sargana Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Historical Perspective of Poverty in Pakistan: Identifying Key Determinants / Strategies <p><em>Poverty is the most important problem for every society and political leadership. The political leaders failed to seek solution to the poverty in society. Poverty also encompasses poor health and individual cannot cover basic needs such as food, housing, and clothes. The present study is focused on historical perspective of poverty in Pakistan. The reasons for rising poverty in Pakistan are discussed and important factors are enumerated that could dent poverty. On the basis of the systematic literature review of past studies, the key policy variables are highlighted to reduce poverty. The concept of poverty reduction is multi-dimensional phenomenon which requires macroeconomic management as well as poverty targeted programs. Among the macro-economic management, the sustainable inclusive growth with special focus in reducing income inequality is highly important for addressing poverty in Pakistan. The micro financing for small enterprises and skill enhancement of the marginalized people have the ability to reduce poverty in Pakistan. The policy mix based on efficient management of macroeconomic indicators coupled with targeted poverty reduction strategies are helpful in addressing poverty in Pakistan</em>.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Nabila Asghar, Muhammad Asif Amjad, Hafeez ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Comparative Historical Analysis of Declaration and Resource Allocation to Governance Indicators by Political Parties in Pakistan <p><em>This comparative study has examined the truism of manifestos of political parties and pecuniary allocation of resources in their regimes in some common governance indicators for 2008-2021. The partisan theory predicts the macroeconomic policies consonance with political doctrine and mitigated the budget policy rules for the promulgation of their conceptions. This comparative study has analyzed overall different governments' total revenues; total expenditure and governance expenditures and provides guidelines for economic agents and votaries for making their future expectations during upcoming times. The logical framework of the study tri-angulated; used van Dijk’s PDA (Political Discourse Analytical) model by utilizing the method of Wodak (2001) and comparative budget analysis (Wildavesky, 1986). The results show that partisan resource allocations have a marginally significant effect on development expenditure (Public Services Development Programs and other PSDP) allocation in the federal budget on governance indicators in Pakistan. Some indicators like accountability and corruption, law and order and information and telecommunication show some partisan marginal effect but nothing different in resource allocation about e-governance, police and civil reforms. The PTI government has devoted more allocation to law and order and information and telecommunications rather than national accountability and corruption.</em></p> Muhammad Ramzan Sheikh, Muhammad Zahir Faridi, Muhammad Imran Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Thu, 09 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Promotion of English Language Under British Rule in Punjab (1849-1947) <p><em>During the British invasion of India in the sixteenth century the Dutch East India Company developed markets in many cities and towns under their control. In 1765, the company's influence had grown to such an extent that the United Kingdom had actually controlled the largest part of the country. In the beginning, English was the only subject for local community through the work of Christian missionaries, and that there was no formal order for the introduction of the language of the masses of the people. However, in the mid-seventeenth, the English language became the language of government, and many of the elite classes of the Indian people asked for instruction in the English language as a tool for social progress. In 1857, universities were opened in Mumbai (Bombay), Kolkata (Calcutta) and Chennai. English was still considered as the language of government, the social elite and the national after independence, it was assumed that the English language would have to be gradually being replaced by the sphere of the state.<a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1"><strong>[i]</strong></a> However, it was not clear that as to which language it should be replaced. In the beginning the Hindi language was the most spoken language, this seemed like the obvious choice, but the opinions were divided for different languages. In a country with a population of over 900 million people and more than a thousand languages, it was difficult to choose a national language but the native speakers of that languages will automatically gain access to a high social status, and it was easier to get power and influence. It had been expressed that English was not the native language , there was Hindi as official language in India and the English was just like Bengali, Gujrati and urdu language. Gandhi was also in favour of Hindi language and wanted to have a special status of English language for individuals</em>. <a href="#_edn2" name="_ednref2">[ii]</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ednref1" name="_edn1">[i]</a> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Aziz k.k, M.A., <em>The Development and reconstruction of university Education in Pakistan</em>, London, 1951, P.26.</p> <p><a href="#_ednref2" name="_edn2">[ii]</a> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Qureshi I.H.,<em>Inaugural Address at the Educational Convention</em>, 1959, Lahore, P.37.</p> Muhammad Safdar Sasrana , Turab Ul Hassan Sargana Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Mon, 13 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Sexual Harassment at Workplace and its Impact on Working Women in Multan City (Pakistan) <p><em>The research aims to investigate impact of sexual harassment on working women at workplace in Multan city. Working women not only have to face official problems as well as facing domestic matters also. Women constitute an important component of the labor force in Pakistan. But at the workplace, they have to face a problem of harassment during their job. This piece of work centered on the primary source of data gathered by author. Data has been collected from (N=150 respondents) from Multan city categorized in the following manners: 50 women were from education department (from Baha Uddin Zakariya University and women university) 30 women doctors were from Nishtar hospital, 20 Nurses from Nishtar hospital, 30 women from different banks and 20 women employees (sale representatives) from different cellular-organizations. The subjects of study were nominated by random sampling method and the age of respondents was 21-60 years. Data was collected through a semi-structural random sampling method through a questionnaire. In this article for collecting information from respondents both qualitative and quantitative data have been used and has been scrutinized through SPSS version-21(Statistical Package for Social Sciences) in simple form of frequency and percentage. The study concludes that harassment is a ground reality and working women face different problems at their workplaces in Multan city. So here is a need for government, educational department and civil society to introduce such policies which are in favor of working women, individual transport systems, women complaint centers must be established in every city of Pakistan.</em></p> sara Gul Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Wed, 15 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Africa’s Poverty and Famines: Developmental Projects of China on Africa <p><em>Poverty exists without any face; it is a multifaceted and complex phenomenon. Poverty and famines existed before human civilization and culture. Human culture existed 0.07 million years ago, and civilization began 6000 years ago. In a modern civilized society, ‘first famine in human history occurred in 1708 B.C. From 1708 BC to 1878 AD, 350 famines occurred in various spheres of the world. The Encyclopedia Britannica listed 31 main famines from prehistoric to the 1960s. The sub-continent has also faced eleven severe famines from 1769-70 to 1943, and about 40.9 million people have died due to these famines. Similarly, more than 2 billion people live below the poverty line. Besides, China left 800 million people due to ‘Open Door Policy’. Now she is changing the world's shape through BRI. Africa is a complex and perplexing region of the world. Because, Africa is facing all the root problems of the world, i.e., poverty, massive unemployment and income inequality, mono-culture political economy, border disputes, intra-state wars, and ethnic and lingual clashes. In the land of Africa, the first famine was recorded 2273 years ago in Ethiopia’. About 2,582 languages<a href="#_edn1" name="_ednref1"><strong>[i]</strong></a> and 1,382 dialects are found on the African continent. From 1945 to 1999, humanity faced 25 interstate wars, most of which occurred in Africa. Therefore, 127 civil wars happened among 73 states in the same era, and 16.2 million people died. The Export and Import Bank of China will spend 1US$ trillion on the African continent in 2025.</em></p> <p><a href="#_ednref1" name="_edn1">[i]</a> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Language which is speaking in Africa, Arabic (170 million) English (130 million), Swahili (100), French (115), Berber (50), Hausa (50), Portuguese (20) and Spanish (10) (Spolsky, 2018)</p> Akhtar Gul , Muhammad Ghulam Shabeer, Rija Ahmad Abbasi, Abdul Wahab Khan Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Sat, 25 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Analyzing & Evaluating the Effects of Public Service Messages about Dengue in Punjab-Pakistan <p><em>This research aimed to evaluate the impact of public service messages about Dengue in Punjab, Pakistan. The aim was to measure the perceived effectiveness of public service messages, knowledge, attitudes, and practices in the context of Health Belief Model constructs. The pre-constructed questionnaire was used to collect data from 540 respondents through the survey method. The findings indicated a significant difference in the perceived effectiveness of the PSM between normal and diseased. Among normal people. There was a significant difference in knowledge about Dengue among people belonging to different socioeconomic backgrounds. A positive and significant relationship between knowledge and attitudes toward dengue was discovered, with a linear regression model indicating a 54.7% positive impact on attitudes. In addition, perceived susceptibility to dengue had a significant impact on dengue prevention measures (p-value&gt;0.05). But the impact of perceived severity on the preventive measures was not noteworthy (p-value =.144 &gt; 0.05). Moreover, the perceived benefits of Dengue had a significant impact on the self-efficacy but Perceived barriers were negatively correlated with self-efficacy, although the correlation was very weak (r = -16). Furthermore, exposure to the media and participation in health-related awareness had a significant impact on knowledge. </em><em>TV</em><em>, newspapers, and health clinics/hospitals were rated the most effective and leading sources of Dengue awareness.</em></p> Sayyed Aamir Abbas Rizvi, Shahzad Ali Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Agricultural Inputs and its Productivity in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis <p><em>Article</em><em> based on one model in which we </em><em>move</em><em> around the</em><em> productivity of </em><em>agriculture</em><em> and</em> <em>its determinants </em><em>in the </em><em>case study of </em><em>Pakistan. </em><em>The output</em><em> of cultivation is determined through the agricultural land, </em><em>labor</em><em> force </em><em>participation </em><em>of the population in agri-business, tractors, manure consumption, credit and electrical consumption. The study has hired the ARDL and Granger causality test for the selected interval sequence data from 1972 to 2016. </em><em>Fin</em><em>dings of the study, in which tractor use in the production purposes of the agriculture has more important and show the positive impact on the productivity. Similarly, fertilizer takeoff is more significant with positive signs and labor force participation in agriculture, credit supply; energy consumption, agricultural land and </em><em>t</em><em>ractors used in agriculture are also positively significant in the long run. </em></p> Maheen Sadaf, Hina Ali , Fatima Farooq, Rashid Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An Analytical Study of the Mesopotamian Civilization <p><em>One of the most ancient myths is that the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, the abomination of civilization and nature, numerous wars, the number of love stories and legends that carry the world which is the holiest sea are among the places where it is located. Like the other contemporary civilizations i.e. Egypt in west and Indus in east the Mesopotamian civilization is also considered one of the important ancient civilizations of the world Tigris and Euphrates. The civilization remained as center of socio-political activities. Egypt is a safe haven for little to no war</em><em>?</em><em>The Egyptians deny that, contrary to a lush interest, the attack will take center stage. Different ethnic groups often experience key combat battles. Thousands of years ago, the two rivers opened to show that people who are interested in the history of fertility are a sign of life on the other side of the rivers. There are two different seas of origin, the center of which is the genus Alma, Assyria, Babylon, Samir, Akkad, and other notable tribes of Egypt. Tigris and Euphrates </em></p> Iqra Ashraf , Attiya Khanum, Sohail Akhtar Copyright (c) 2022 PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY Wed, 29 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000