Educational Reforms in Pakistan: A Comparative Study of Civil-Military Regimes (1999-2018)


  • Sajjad Ahmad Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad
  • Farasat Zahra Govt. Associate Degree College, Kacha khuh, Khanewal
  • Rabia Perveen Dua Public School, Multan
  • Safdar Hussain Quad-i-Azam Academy for Educational Development Lahore



Civil-Military, Reforms, Policy, Education, Pakistan


The study is based about comparison of civil-military regimes (1999-2018). The main objective of the study is to explore the educational reforms/policies and analyze the internal / eternal factors related to failure of educational system in Pakistan. Education plays a usually role in the advancement and protection of National Identity. However, being ideological state the Western countries considered Pakistan nurturing anti west approaches amongst a few Muslim countries. They claimed that Muslim countries included Pakistan majority of children getting Madaris education, where they produced extremists, fundamentalists and Islamic Jehadists. The radicalization concept was converted into technical education through Education Sector Reforms (ESR) 2002, education for all.  This article sheds light on the educational reforms/policy of civil-military governance regimes 1999-2018 of Pakistan with a major focus education for all, introducing technical education and Madaris reforms to achieve 80% literacy rate. These education sector reforms did not fruitful due to involvement of bureaucrats for making policies and ignored educationist in the relevant field specialists.  After 2010, the 18th amendment in the 1973 constitution of Pakistan the slogan of civilian governance compulsory education for the children from ages five to sixteen (free education for all). Here millions of children still have not registered in education to achieve the target. There are so many other flops like religious factors and sectarian violence. Through 18th Amendment the school education is the subject of provincial matter.



How to Cite

Sajjad Ahmad, Farasat Zahra, Rabia Perveen, & Safdar Hussain. (2022). Educational Reforms in Pakistan: A Comparative Study of Civil-Military Regimes (1999-2018). PERENNIAL JOURNAL OF HISTORY, 3(2), 410-438.